|Code||Viscosity||Gel Time||Flexible Strength||Flexible Modulus||Tensile Strength||Tensile Modulus||Elongation At Break||Impact Strength||Barcol Hardness||HDT||Description|
|(25°C ) min||MPa||GPa||MPa||GPa||%||KJ/ m2||°C|
Isophthalic acid GELCOAT Resin. It has good construction performance, high hardness, heat resistance, wear resistance, impact resistance, etc., and is suitable for high performance products,such as cooling tower, yacht , amusement park Playground facilities. It has been approved by CCS and DNV ,Hand lay-up or spray up process.
|TM33||3500-5500||10-20||120||3.2||68||3.2||3.0||13||38||60||Isophthalic acid GELCOAT Resin.It has good comprehensive performance such as impact resistance, water resistance, weather resistance, and construction performance, and is suitable for manufacturing general products with high requirements. It is certified by China Shipyard Inspection.It has been approved by CCS and DNV ,Hand lay-up or spray up process.|
Orthophthalic type general purpose GELCOAT resin
It has good construction performance, high hardness, heat resistance, wear resistance, impact resistance, etc., and is suitable for general purpose products. Hand lay-up or spray up process.
|8-20||110||3.0||68||3.1||2.6||12||42||75||M-Benzene Neopentyl glycol gel coat resin, with excellent physical properties, construction and water resistance, weather resistance, chemical resistance, is suitable for manufacturing outdoor FRP products with high requirements. Hand brush or spray molding can be used.|
|8-20||105||3.0||65||3.0||2.4||10||43||68||The o-benzene Neopentyl glycol gel coat resin has good workability, weather resistance, water resistance and other characteristics, and is suitable for manufacturing outdoor general products. Hand brush or spray molding can be used.|
|8-20||125||3.2||68||3.2||2.6||10||45||90||M-Benzene Neopentyl glycol gel coat resin, with excellent physical properties, construction and water resistance, weather resistance, chemical resistance, is suitable for manufacturing outdoor FRP products with high requirements. Hand brush or spray molding can be used.|
|8-20||110||3.0||70||3.0||2.0||12||43||105||Vinyl based gel coating resin has excellent physical properties, construction and water resistance, chemical resistance, and good corrosion resistance. Hand brush or spray molding can be used.|
|5-20||110||3.1||68||3.2||2.6||12||43||90||M-Benzene Neopentyl glycol gel coat resin, with excellent comprehensive performance, outstanding water resistance, good gloss retention, can be used for products with high surface requirements. Hand brush or spray molding can be used.|
|8-16||130||3.0||70||3.0||2.0||10||47||105||Isobenzene Neopentyl glycol gel coat resin is characterized by good gloss, transparency, high hardness, wear resistance, and especially excellent water resistance. It is suitable for making artificial marble, artificial agate, sanitary ware and other products with high water resistance requirements.|
|8-30||100||3.2||68||3.2||2.3||10||45||65||Isobenzene type flame retardant gel coat resin has excellent flame retardant properties (high oxygen index, low smoke density), physical properties, construction and water resistance, and is suitable for manufacturing products with flame retardant requirements such as train components and lifeboats. Hand brush or spray molding can be used.|
|TMP321-H||3000-5000||8-20||110||3.2||68||3.2||3||15||38||60||The TM P321 series flat gel coat is an unsaturated polyester gel coat specially designed for manufacturing large flat products or components such as composite material carriage boards and large countertops. It has good mechanical properties (high bending strength, high impact strength, and high elongation), good construction performance (good leveling, no glue flow, wide process adaptability), high glossiness, good weather resistance, good wear resistance, and good flexibility. Choose different varieties and specifications according to different construction processes.|
|8-15||120||3.2||68||3.2||2.6||12||43||81||TMS301/S201 is a special polishing gel coat resin (TMS301 is m-benzene Neopentyl glycol type, TMS201 is m-benzene type), which has good mechanical properties and construction performance. The gel coat layer has good bonding performance with the outer layer, and is easy to polish and level after forming and demolding. It is very suitable for manufacturing products that require painting on the surface of the gel coat, such as car bodies and accessories, racing boats, and other products. Hand brushing or spray molding can be used.|
|TM82||2000-5000||10-30||110||3.5||62||3.0||3.0||12||45||90||Vinyl ester resin type high-performance mold gel coat has the advantages of high hardness, high gloss, strong impact resistance, excellent heat resistance, good wear resistance, good toughness and so on. It is specially used to make FRP molds with high requirements, and can also be used for some FRP products with high performance requirements. Hand brush or spray molding can be used, and it is recommended to use a hand brush.|
|Benzene based gel coating resin has excellent physical properties, construction performance, water resistance, weather resistance, and heat resistance, especially suitable for manufacturing products with high comprehensive performance requirements such as cooling towers, yachts, and amusement facilities. It has been certified by China Ship Inspection and DNV Ship Inspection. Hand brush or spray can be used|
Tianma Brand Color Paste
|Brief Introduction||Level||Quantity||Main Component|
Color paste is made by distribution and miling in the special media from color pigment and assistant solvent it can be used for coloring frpproducts. during usace. to mix the color paste with resin based on a certain ratio evenly. ater formation the final products with the reouiredcolor will be got, detailed colors please find the color card or according to the customer's request.
Tianma brand color paste is with the characteristics such as vivid color , heat resistance. stable aualitv . strong coloring performance etc.Theunction of the pigment can not be fuly carried out unti the color paste has good coloring performance, tianma brand color paste can reach thesame color and color strenath as other brand by using the minimum auantity and meanwhie with good coverina performance.
Paste like substance with
Even color after
|In resin, a portion of 3%-5% isrecommende to add. Of course.the final ruantity can beincreased or decreasedaccording to diffent technologyand request.|
|1 Gum coat layer wrinkling - Gum coat formation in contact with the mold|
|1）The adhesive layer is too thin||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|2）If the adhesive layer is not fully cured, make a backing layer||Wait until the fingers are not sticky before proceeding to the next step|
|3）Insufficient dosage of curing agent||Increase the dosage of curing agent|
|4）Operating environment humidity too high||Maintain operating environment humidity of 40-60RH|
|5）Low operating environment temperature||Increase operating temperature|
|2 Cracks appear on the surface of the gel coat layer|
|1）Insufficient flexibility of gel coat||Choose flexible gel coat|
|2）The gel coat layer is too thick||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|3）Excessive amount of curing agent||Add curing agent according to the manufacturer's instructions|
|4）Uneven thickness of gel coat layer||Ensure uniform thickness of the gel coat layer|
|5）Gel coat diluted with solvent||Do not add solvents, adjust the viscosity according to the manufacturer's instructions|
|6）Excessive force during demolding||Do not use heavy objects to strike when removing the film|
|7）Undercuring of structural layer||After the structural layer is fully cured, demolding can be carried out|
|8）Insufficient reinforcement of structural layers||Necessary parts of reinforced structural layer|
|9）Cracks on the surface of the mold||Clean or replace the mold|
|3 Pinholes - tiny air holes formed on the surface of the gel coat|
|1）The gel coat layer is too thick||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|2）Spray flow rate too high||Adjusting spray flow rate|
|3）Poor atomization of gel coat||Adjust the spraying pressure to ensure good atomization|
|4）Gel coat sprayed too thick at once||Generally, it is necessary to evenly spray 3-4 times to achieve the required thickness|
|5）Gel coat gel is too fast to defoaming||Adjusting the dosage of curing agent|
|6）Improper operating environment temperature and humidity||Adjusting the operating environment temperature and humidity|
|7）Improper selection of release agent||Do not use silicone release agents, use designated release agents|
|8）Contaminants present||Clean the mold and related spraying equipment and pipelines|
|9）Improper distance between the spray gun nozzle and the mold||Keep the spray gun nozzle 45-75cm away from the mold|
|10）Poor quality of accelerator and curing agent||Promoter using styrene as solvent and curing agent with low water content|
|4 Fish Eye - Small pores formed on the surface of the gel coat (usually circular in shape)|
|1）Spraying equipment and pipelines are not clean||Check relevant equipment and pipelines|
|2）Improper selection of release agent||Do not use silicone release agents, use designated release agents|
|3）Wax or dirt on the mold||Clean the mold again|
|4）The adhesive layer is too thin||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|5）Gel coat viscosity and thixotropic index are too low||Check the indicators of the gel coat and do not add solvents|
|5 Demolding - the gel layer detaches from the mold in advance|
|1）Insufficient toughness of gel coat||Choose resilient gel coat|
|2）The gel coat layer is too thick and uneven||Ensure that the adhesive layer is of the recommended thickness and uniform|
|3）Large shrinkage of gel coat||Do not dilute with solvents|
|4）Improper selection of release agent||Do not use silicone release agents, use designated release agents|
|5）Gel coat contamination||Ensure cleanliness of equipment and pipelines|
|6）Inhibition of styrene leads to uneven curing||Strengthen ventilation to avoid styrene on the mold|
|7）Excessive curing agent and excessive heat release of the gel coat||Adjusting the dosage of curing agent|
|8）The wax on the mold was not treated thoroughly||Thoroughly handle the mold|
|9）The gel time is too short or the ambient temperature is too high||Adjust appropriately|
|6 Hanging - Gel coat flows in a vertical plane|
|1）The gel coat layer is too thick||Check the thickness of the adhesive layer and adjust it|
|2）Gel coat viscosity and thixotropic index are too low||Check the indicators of the gel coat and do not add solvents|
|3）Improper selection of release agent||Do not use silicone release agents, use designated release agents|
|4）The spray gun pressure is too high to impact the adhesive layer||Adjusting the pressure of the spray gun|
|5）The spray gun nozzle is too close to the mold||Keep the spray gun nozzle 45-75cm away from the mold|
|6）Gel coat construction too fast||Uniformly construct three times to achieve thickness|
|7）Incorrect nozzle diameter||If the caliber is too small, it can easily cause significant shear force on the gel coat, reducing its viscosity. Therefore, the caliber should be increased|
|7 Poor gloss - on the surface of the product|
|1）Insufficient curing of gel coat||Adjusting the dosage of curing agent|
|2）Operating environment with high humidity and low temperature||Adjusting the operating environment temperature and humidity|
|3）Gel coat and resin contaminated||Check relevant equipment and pipelines|
|4）Poor wettability of glass fiber||Choose glass fiber with good wettability|
|5）Low solid content of gel coat||Contact suppliers|
|6）Demolding||Refer to 'demolding'|
|7）When demolding, the adhesive layer has not yet fully solidified||Ensure sufficient curing of the gel coat during demolding|
|8）Poor surface of the mold||Clean the mold again|
|8 Mucosa - adhesive coating adheres to the mold and separates from the structural layer|
|1）Uneven waxing||Carefully and evenly waxing|
|2）The wax model used is incorrect||Using supplier recommended models|
|3）Mold contaminated||Clean the mold and repax it|
|4）The mold has been left for too long after wax removal||After removing wax, glue coat should be applied in a timely manner|
|5）Excessive curing of gel coat||The gel coat should be made into a structural layer within 8 hours|
|6）The glass fiber in contact with the gel coat is not soaked||When making structural layers, the resin should be fully immersed in the reinforcing material|
|7）Glass fiber contaminated||Check fiberglass|
|8）Gel coat containing wax||Correct selection of gel coat model|
|9 Ripples - on the surface of the gel coat|
|1）The adhesive layer is too thin||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|2）Make a structural layer before the adhesive layer has solidified||Wait for the adhesive layer to solidify before proceeding to the next step of operation|
|3）Wet fiberglass||Glass fiber should be stored dry|
|4）Improper use of reinforcing materials||The first layer of the structural layer should be coated with surface felt.|
|5）Start demolding before fully curing||Extend curing time|
|6）The heat release from the structural layer is too concentrated||Layered construction or use of low heat release structural resin|
|7）Uneven dispersion of curing agent||Ensure that the gel coat and curing agent are thoroughly mixed and atomized|
|10 Uneven color - product surface|
|1）Gel coat contaminated||Check brushes, rollers, spray guns, and other equipment and clean them|
|2）Gel coat flowing||Refer to the content of "hanging"|
|3）Uneven dispersion of curing agent||Calibrate injection or mixing equipment|
|4）Excessive curing dose||Adjusting the dosage of curing agent|
|5）Insufficient or incompatible color paste||Consultation with suppliers|
|6）Gel coat is too thick or uneven in thickness||Construct at the recommended thickness and as evenly as possible|
|7）Separation of gel coat and color paste||Please refer to 'Phase Separation'|
|8）Poor quality of color paste production||Using high-quality color paste|
|9）Poor atomization of gel coat||Adjusting atomization pressure|
|11 Deformation - Gel Coat Layer|
|1）Demolding too early||The product should have sufficient curing time|
|2）The resin selection for the reinforcement layer is incorrect||Resins with low heat release and shrinkage should be used|
|3）Reinforcement layer resin curing too fast||Adjusting the resin curing speed of the reinforcement layer|
|4）Local overheating of the strength layer||Control the heating uniformity and thickness of the strength layer, as well as the ratio of resin to glass fiber|
|5）Improper use of reinforcing materials||The first layer of the structural layer is applied with surface felt|
|6）Improper mold design||Mold design should pay attention to stress concentration|
|7）The adhesive layer is too thin||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|12 Blistering - Gel Coat Layer|
|1）Improper use of curing agent||Check the dosage of curing agent and select high-quality curing agent with low water content|
|2）Improper selection of accelerator||Choose styrene as a high-quality promoter for the solvent.|
|3）Uneven mixing of curing agent||Ensure that the curing agent is evenly mixed with the gel coat|
|4）There is a closed gas between the gel coat layer and the strength layer||When making structural layers, all bubbles should be expelled|
|5）Wet fiberglass||Preservation of glass fibers under dry conditions|
|6）Damping of fillers in the strength layer||When using fillers, they should be kept dry|
|7）Gel coat and resin contaminated||Inspect pipelines and equipment|
|8）Poor wettability of glass fiber||Re select fiberglass|
|9）Gel coat and resin do not meet the environmental requirements for use||Re select materials|
|10）Undercuring of gel coat or structural layer||Check the curing system and operation status|
|13 Orange Peel - Back of Gel Coat Layer|
|1）The viscosity of hand glue coat is too low||Adjusting viscosity|
|2）The spray gun is too close to the mold or the spray angle is incorrect||Adjust the angle and distance from the mold (45-75cm)|
|3）Poor atomization||Adjust the atomization pressure or replace the nozzle|
|4）The adhesive layer is too thin||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|14 Poor leveling|
|1）Gel coat viscosity and thixotropy are too high||Adjusting the viscosity and thixotropy of gel coat|
|2）The adhesive layer is too thin||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|3）The flow rate of gel coat is too high||Adjusting the flow rate of gel coat|
|4）The spray gun is too close to the mold||Maintain spray distance between 45-75cm|
|5）Low temperature of gel coat||Keep the temperature of the gel coat at 20-30 ℃|
|15 Phase separation - separation of pigments and resins (usually on an inclined plane)|
|1）Gel coat or compressed air containing water||The construction environment should be dehumidified to ensure the dryness of the mold surface and compressed air|
|2）Curing agent mixing is not local||Check the spraying equipment|
|3）The curing agent does not match the gel coat (incompatible)||Replace the curing agent|
|4）Curing time too long||Adjusting the curing time|
|5）The gel coat layer is too thick||Keep the thickness of the gel coat layer between 0.4 and 0.6mm|
|6）Sagging||Refer to the content of "hanging"|
|7）Gel coat viscosity and thixotropy are too low||Check the viscosity of the gel coat|
In order to ensure a satisfactory FRP product and obtain a satisfactory appearance, the mold needs to be fully prepared in advance and the operation of the gel coat needs to be correct. When using colored gel coats, the application process is as follows:
1. Choose the appropriate color gel coat model based on product needs and application environment.
2. Prepare the mold and thoroughly treat the surface of the mold.
3. Mix each barrel of gel coat thoroughly before use, but at a slow pace to avoid mixing with bubbles.
4. Before starting the homework, the temperature of the gel coat and mold should be maintained at 16 ℃ -30 ℃, and the ideal mold temperature should be 2 ℃ -3 ℃ higher than the gel coat temperature. In this way, after curing, a more glossy surface of the gel coat is obtained.
5. The relative humidity in the workshop should be lower than 80%, and high humidity will increase the required curing temperature. In addition, it is necessary to prevent water from accumulating on the surface of the mold.
6. The surface of the mold needs to be thoroughly waxed. Do not use release wax containing silicone. The water-soluble demolding wax must wait for its moisture to evaporate before applying the gel coat.
7. When using gel coats, do not dilute with solvents such as acetone. If a lower viscosity is required during use, only a small amount of styrene (<2%) can be added.
8. The curing agent used for gel coat is methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (generally 1-3%) or liquid Cyclohexanone peroxide (generally 2-4%). If the amount of curing agent is too high or too low, the curing may result in a decrease in the water resistance and weather resistance of the gel coat.
9. When spraying, in order to achieve the appropriate thickness, it should be sprayed 2-3 times, which is also to achieve good defoaming effect. Hand paste needs to be applied twice. After the first layer solidifies, the next layer is applied, with a total thickness of 0.4-0.6mm. During hand paste, it is prohibited to directly pour the gel coat onto the mold for brushing to avoid leaving shadows.
10. When spraying gel coat, choose the appropriate nozzle (2.5-5mm), spraying pressure (7-9bar), spraying distance (45-75cm), and vertical direction for the Kolas spray gun.
11. Obtain a smooth gel coating layer with a spray thickness of 0.4-0.6 millimeters (equivalent to 600-800 grams of gel coating per square meter), which is too thin and causes undercooling; Too thick, prone to sagging, cracking, and pinholes. Thickness measurement can be done using a thickness gauge.
12. Ensure good ventilation during construction, as styrene monomer acts as a polymerization inhibitor due to its high molecular weight, which can settle in the concave area of the mold.
13. After the gel coat has fully solidified (the gel coat layer only sticks to the hand with fingers and does not adhere to the hand), proceed to the next step of operation.
1. When storing gel coats, direct sunlight should be avoided, and the storage temperature should be ≤ 25 ℃. They should be stored separately from MEKP.
2. The pre-treatment mold and gel coat construction area should avoid the generation of dust. The gel coat should be poured into a clean bucket.
3. When stirring the curing agent or color paste, use low speed mixing. Do not mix too much air.
4. Do not use high shear mixing equipment. Otherwise, it will lead to a decrease in thixotropy index, separation/aggregation of color paste, bleeding, and bubbles.
5. It is prohibited to directly pour the gel coat onto the mold and apply it directly, as this can easily cause shadows.
6. The gel time should not be adjusted too fast, which is not conducive to the escape of bubbles.
7. The amount of curing agent added should be appropriately calibrated by measuring the gelation time.
8. Do not use mold release wax containing silicone, as they can produce fish eyes.
9. When using gel coats, accelerators can be added appropriately according to process requirements and weather changes, but avoid adding a large amount of accelerators to avoid changing the color of the gel coat.
10. When using accelerators, styrene should be used as a solvent to avoid the excessive presence of other solvents that do not react with the system, resulting in a decrease in the pinholes, water resistance, and strength of the gel coat curing layer.
11. As the outer surface of fiberglass products, gel coats provide protection and beautification. Therefore, high-quality curing agents with low water content and guaranteed quality should be used during use to avoid the decrease in needle holes, water resistance, weather resistance, and strength of the gel coat curing layer caused by poor quality of the curing agent.